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मंगलवार, 18 फ़रवरी 2020

Rural education In India- upgrade system


Rural education
upgrade the rural education system

       Rural education was completely the responsibility of the states before 1976. The amendment made by the Constitution in 1976, which put education in the concurrent list, had far-reaching consequences. The basic, financial and administrative measures required the sharing of new responsibilities between the states and the central government.
Rural-education

       While there was no major change in the role and responsibility of the states in the field of rural education, the central government also accepted a greater burden of strengthening the national and integrated form of rural education. This includes maintaining the qualifications and standards of teachers at all levels and assessing and maintaining the educational needs of the country.



     The central government has continued the task of formulating educational policies and programs under its leadership and monitoring its implementation. These policies include the 1986 National Education Policy and the Action Program, which was updated in 1992. The revised policy provides for the formulation of such a national rural education system. This includes bringing uniformity in education, making adult education program a mass movement, making education accessible to all, maintaining the quality of basic (primary) education, special emphasis on girl education, establishing modern schools like Navodaya Vidyalayas in every district of the country, To make secondary education vocational, giving a wide variety of information in the field of higher education and inter-discipline The installation of new free universities in research, state efforts have been made to strengthen the All India Council for Technical Education and promote sports, physical education, yoga and adopt a competitive evaluation process. In addition to this, a decentralized management framework has also been suggested to ensure greater participation of people in rural education. A detailed strategy has also been provided in the POA to formulate various policy standards for agencies engaged in the implementation of these programs.

       The national education system laid down by the NPE under rural education is based on a national curriculum framework that has a provision for having a uniform curriculum along with other flexible and sector-specific components. While education policy emphasizes on providing more opportunities for people, it also seeks to strengthen the current system of higher and technical education. The education policy also emphasizes to invest at least 6 percent of the total national income in the field of education.
The Central Rural Education Advisory Board (CBSE) is the apex body constituted to advise the Central and State Governments in the field of education. It was formed in 1920 and dissolved in 1923 to reduce expenditure. It was re-constituted in 1935 and the Board remained in existence till 1994. Despite the fact that in the past important decisions have been taken on the consultation of CABE and it has provided a platform for extensive discussion and examination on academic and cultural subjects,
Rural-education

    The role of CABE increases even more due to the socio-economic changes taking place in the country and the current needs of review of National Education Policy. Therefore, it is a matter of importance that the Central and State Governments, academics and representatives of all sections of society should increase mutual discussions and create such a participative process of decision-making in the field of education so that our policy of federal structure Reinforce. The National Education Policy 1986 (as amended in 1992) also has this provision CABE will also have an important role in reviewing education development and determining necessary changes to monitor the system and programs. It will carry out its work through appropriate systems designed to ensure mutual coordination and interaction in various areas of human resource development.



       education Free and compulsory education bill and other matters related to primary education, girl education rural education and uniform school system, uniform secondary education, autonomy to higher education institutions, integration of cultural education in school curriculum, running outside the government-run system Regulatory arrangements for textbooks and parallel textbooks for schools and higher and higher Providing financial assistance to Niki education.

      Meen Education Committees were formed in September 2004. The reports from them were discussed in the 53rd meeting of CABE held in New Delhi on 14-15 July 2005. Necessary measures are being taken to identify action points emerging from all these reports and to formulate an action plan to implement them within a certain period of time. With this, it has been decided to set up three permanent committees of CABE-

    Based on the recommendation of the meeting of Rural Education CABE held on 6-7 September 2005, a monitoring committee has been constituted by NCERT to monitor the process of preparation of syllabus for textbooks. Steps have been taken to improve the functioning of accredited and affiliated institutions through the net line by accepting applications and taking action and bringing transparency in other matters.

      As a registered society under the Committee Registration Act, 1860, for easy access to the smallest amount of donations (donations) received from India and abroad for the implementation of various projects and programs related to the field of rural education. India Assistance Fund ”. On January 9, 2003, the function organized on the occasion of "Pravasi Bharatiya Divas" was duly launched. This fund will be able to receive donations/contributions and assistance from private organizations, individuals, corporate (industry), central and state governments, NRIs and people of Indian origin for all activities and activities related to the field of education.

        In compliance with the commitment to provide more resources for rural education, there has been a huge increase in the allocation made during the last years. The prescribed plan outlay for education increased from Rs 151.20 crore in the First Five Year Plan to Rs 43,825 crore in the Tenth Plan (2002-2007) Expenditure on education as compared to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased from 0.64 percent in the year 1951-52 to 3.74 percent in the year 2003-04 (as per the budget estimates). The plan outlay of Rs 43,825 crore for the Tenth Five Year Plan is 1.76 times higher than Rs 24,908.38 crore of Ninth Five Year Plan. Of this, Rs 30,000 crore has been given to the Department of Primary Education and Literacy and Rs 13,825 crore to the Department of Secondary and Higher Education. During the year 2005-06, the plan outlay for the Department of Primary Education and Literacy was Rs 12,531.76 crore and the plan outlay for the Department of Secondary Education was Rs 2712.00 crore. The expenditure on various areas of education during the plan period is given in Table 10.1
Primary education-

Education for all campaign-


       The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) scheme as a national scheme is being implemented in all the districts of the country. SSA aims to provide useful and relevant primary education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 by 2010. The goals of SSA are as follows


(i) All children in the age group of 6-14 years in all schools, education guarantee scheme centers/bridge courses by 2005.
(ii) Abolition of all types of gender and social discrimination at the level of primary education by the year 2007 and basic education level by 2010.
(iii) Education for all by 2010. Emphasis on primary education of satisfactory quality with special focus on education for life.
This program will be implemented all over the country and special attention will be paid to the educational needs of girls, students belonging to SC / ST and students living in difficult conditions.
This program of education includes the opening of new schools in the populated areas where there are no schools yet, and opening and improving new schools through additional rooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance, and school improvement grants. From the beginning of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan to December 2006, about 1.81 lakh new schools have been opened. 1,49,683 lakh new school buildings and 6,50,442 lakh additional rooms have either been completed or are nearing completion and 8.14 lakh new teachers have been appointed under SSA by 31.3.2007. The government provided Rs 576.45 crore for the Eleventh Plan for SSA.
Rural-education

     The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has succeeded in drastically reducing the number of school dropouts. In March 2007, this number stood at about 70 lakhs as against 3.20 crore children leaving school in 2001-02. During the same period, enrollment of girls at the primary level increased by 19.2 percent and at the upper primary level by 15 percent. Currently, 67 lakh children are enrolled in alternative schools that have been opened in small and remote residences. And provide education to working children, families from elsewhere and urban disadvantaged children. There is a provision in SSA to pay special attention to girls and children of weaker sections of the society. Under this, many other programs are being run including the provision of free textbooks for such children. There is also a provision to provide computer education in rural areas under SSA to bridge the education gap.


Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Unique Education-


       The Education Guarantee  The scheme provides for a separate scheme for each child who is still left out of school education.
EGS focuses on such inaccessible population areas, where there is no formal school within a one-kilometer radius, and there are at least 15-25 children in the age group of 6–14 years who do not attend school. An EGS school can also be opened for 10 children in exceptional areas like hilly areas.



     The introduction of alternative education has been made for children from underprivileged sections of society, child laborers, street children, migrant children, children in difficult circumstances and children above 9 years of age. EGS and AIE pay special attention to adolescent girls across the country.
In the populated areas (residential areas) where the schools are there, but either the children did not get admission in them or left the middle school after being admitted, such children may not be able to adjust to the traditional school system. To bring such children back to school, policies of organizing school return camps and bridge courses have been implemented. Bridge courses and school retreat camps can be residential and non-residential as per the needs of children.

Mid-day meal scheme-

    The National Nutrition Cooperation Program for Elementary Education was launched from August 15, 1995, with a view to increasing enrollment, retention and attendance as well as improving nutrition levels among children. The centrally sponsored scheme was first launched in 2408 blocks in the country. By the end of the year 1997-98, NP-NSPE was implemented in all blocks of the country. In 2002, it was not only extended to children from government, government-aided and local bodies' schools from class one to five.
Rural-education

      Children studying in EGS and AIE centers were also included under this. The scheme includes - Grant assistance of Rs 50 per quintal for carrying 100 grams of food grains and food grains per child every school day. In September 2004, the scheme was amended by the government, aided schools and EGS / AIE The system of providing cooked mid-day meals with 300 calories and 8-10 grams of protein to all the children of classes one to five studying in the centers. Interpretation of went Apart from giving free grain, the central assistance given under this revised scheme is as follows.

    (A) Cost of cooking one rupee per child per school day, (b) Transport grant for special classified states increased from Rs. 50 per quintal to Rs.100 per quintal, (c) Grain, transport grant and kitchen aid. Management, monitoring and evaluation cost assistance at the rate of two percent, (d) Provision for providing mid-day meal during summer vacation in drought-affected areas. The scheme was again amended in July 2006 to assist in kitchen costs, which is as follows.

      (A) At the rate of per child/school day for the North East region states, the contribution of NER states is Rs. 1.80 per child/school day, and (b) Rs. 1.50 per child/school day for other states and union territories. And the remaining Rs. 50 per child/school day. These states and union territories will provide

The objectives of the mid-day meal scheme are-
(i) Improvement in the nutritional status of children studying in class I to V in government, local bodies and government-aided schools, and EGS and AIE centers.
(ii) Encourage poor children from disadvantaged sections to attend classes regularly and concentrate on classroom activities.
(iii) To provide nutritional support to primary level children in drought-affected areas during summer vacation.
Provision of assistance in a phased manner to replace food items and kitchen equipment at a normal cost of Rs 5000 per school. Flexibility in spending on the following items based on the actual needs of the schools (the total general assistance for the State / UT would be Rs 5000 per school). Can keep
(A) cooking equipment (stove, stove, etc.)
(B) Container for storage of food grains and other materials
(C) utensils for cooking and feeding
States / UTs for management, monitoring and evaluation (MME) at the rate of 1.8 percent of the total assistance on (a) free food grains, (b) transportation costs and (c) cost of cooking. Provision of assistance to Another 0.2 percent of the above amount will be used by the central government for management, monitoring, and evaluation.
In order to ensure transparency and accountability, all schools and centers where this program is being implemented are asked to display information on a discretionary basis. This information includes -



(ii) Quantity of food grains used

(iii) Other purchased, used portions

(iv) Number of children receiving mid-day meal

(v) Daily menu

(vi) A roster of community members involved in the program
Officials of State / UTs of Revenue Department, Rural Development, Education and other related areas like Women and Child Development, Food, Health are asked to inspect the schools in which the program is being implemented. Inspection of 25 percent primary schools / EGS and AIE centers has been recommended every quarter.
food-----


Food Corporation of India-


It is the responsibility of FCI to ensure that sufficient foodgrains are continuously available in FCI depots (in the case of northeastern states food grains should be available at the main distribution centers). It is permissible to raise food grains for a month/quarter in a month in advance so that the supply of food grains remains uninterrupted.
There is an order to issue food grains of the best quality which will, in any case, be of Fair Fair Quality (FAQ). The FCI appoints a nodal officer in each state to deal with various problems in the supply of food grains under the MDM program. District Officer / District Panchayat Chief ensures The food is of at least FAQ and is released only after inspection by a joint team of nominees by FCI and District Magistrate and/or District Panchayat Chief.
The State Government / UT by the Department of School Education and Literacy, Government of India. It is asked to file periodic information on (i) coverage of children and institutions, (ii) cost of cooking, transportation, construction of kitchen shed and receipt of kitchen items. Monitoring by Social Science Research Institutes 41 social science research institutes identified for monitoring the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has also been assigned the task of monitoring the Mid-Day Meal Scheme.


District Primary Education Program-

     The Sponsored  Primary Education Program (DPEP) was started in 1994. Its objective was to revitalize the primary education system and fulfill the goal of universalization of primary education.
According to the program norms, the investment limit per district for a period of 5-7 years is Rs 40 crore. This includes 33.3 percent on construction works and 06 percent on management expenditure. The balance is for quality improvement programs
85 percent of the project cost is borne by the Central Government and the remaining 15 percent is borne by the respective State Governments. The central government's share comes through aid from abroad. Currently, foreign aid is about Rs 6938 crore, out of which Rs 5137 crore is in the form of loan from International Development Agency (IDA) and the remaining Rs 1801 crore as a grant.
Major achievements of DPEP-

(i) DPEP has opened more than 1,60,000 schools so far, with around 84,000 Alternative Learning Centers (AS). In these alternative learning centers, 35 lakh children are taking education, while the other two lakh children are availing various types of bridge (bridge) courses. (ii) The school structure prepared under DPEP is remarkable. 52,758 school buildings; 58,604 additional classes; 16,619 resource centers; 29,307 repair works; The construction of 64,592 toilets and 24,909 drinking water facilities have either been completed or is in progress.
(iii) The Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in the Phase-I states during the last three years has been 93 to 95 percent. After adjusting the admission in alternative schools/education guarantee centers, the GER in the year 2001-02 is more than 100 percent. The districts which come under DPEP and where DPEP is applicable at different stages, the Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) including Alternative Schools / Education Guarantee Schools (AS / EGS) is more than 85 percent. (1) There has been a significant improvement in the enrollment of girls. The enrollment of girls has increased from 48 to 49 percent as compared to the total enrollments in DPEP Phase-I districts, while in DPEP districts it has increased from 46 to 47 percent at various stages. (1) The total number of differently-abled children currently enrolled is 4,20,203, which is about 76 percent of the total number of differently-abled children in DPEP states of 5,53,844. (1) Village Education Committees / School Management Committees have been formed in all project villages / residential areas/schools. (2) Approximately 1,77,000 teachers, including part-time teachers, education workers, have been appointed. (3) 3380 resource centers have been established at the block level and 29,725 centers at the group level to provide education-related support and teaching training facilities.

National Bal Bhavan-

Rashtriya Bal Bhavan is an autonomous organization fully funded by the Ministry of Human Resource and Development which functions under the Department of School Education and Literacy. Since its formation in 1956, Bal Bhavan has progressed progressively throughout the country. At present, there are 68 State Bal Bhavan and 10 Child Centers affiliated to National Bal Bhavan. Through the affiliated Bal Bhavans and Bal Kendras, Bal Bhavan has access to school dropouts, socially and economically backward class children, street children, and special children. Many schools in Delhi have subscribed to Rashtriya Bal Bhavan and it is through this joint effort of formal and informal institutions that great success has been achieved in creative growth of children.
Rashtriya Bal Bhavan is working for the overall development of children by engaging them in various activities in a stress-free environment without discrimination of their gender, caste, religion, color, etc. Some of these major activities are Clay modeling, paper match, music, dance, drama, painting, craft, museum activity,
Indoor-outdoor sports, home management, traditional arts and crafts, educational and innovative sports/chess, science is interesting, etc. Some of the special attractions of National Bal Bhavan are - Mini Train, Minizu, Fish Corner, Science Park, Funny Mirror, Culture Craft Village. The National Bal Bhavan has a National Training Resource Center (NTRC) which trains teachers in various activities. The main objective and focus of this center are to train teachers in all-round development and personality development of children as teacher communities are skilled in understanding the socioeconomic, emotional, intellectual and psychological needs of children. NTRC also aims to make teaching and learning an enjoyable experience for both teachers and students.

     The Rashtriya Bal Bhavan has also introduced a scheme to recognize, respect and care for those creative children without distinguishing them in their socio-economic status. The motive behind "The Balashree Scheme" scheme is that creativity is a human possibility which is directly related to self-expression and self-development. Under this scheme, to identify children with creativity in the age group of 9-16 years in four creative areas, ie creative arts, creative performance, creative scientific discovery, creative writing. The scheme has been operational since 1995 and since then children have been recognized and awarded for excellence in their creative fields. These honors have been conferred on him by either the President or his wife at a colorful event held at Rashtrapati Bhavan.

      Additionally, Rashtriya Bal Bhavan organizes some local, national and international events such as workshops, trekking programs, talk shows, camps. Apart from this, Earth Day, Environment Day, etc. is also celebrated. Organizes International Children's Assembly, Youth Environmentalist Conference, Education for All and All India Conference of Chairpersons and Directors under the supervision of Ministry of Human Resource and Development Apart from all this, the National Bal Bhavan sends its children from different parts of the country to different countries under the cultural exchange program and these children serve as youth ambassadors for the socio-cultural distinctiveness of the sub-continent. Along with this, the children of the National Bal Bhavan, the children of affiliated Bal Bhavans across the country and the member schools/institutions of the National Bal Bhavan also participate in the international painting competition on the theme of global problems.

Rural education In India

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