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Thursday, April 9, 2020

Sex Education In School Articles


Sex Education In School 

Sex Education In School -
   In India, sex education is a subject that many people do not like to talk about even today.
But looking at the time when children also shy away from thinking about sex. And their parents could stop them from thinking about all these things. 
Sex-Education
Sex-Education

     Today's children are very curious about sexual things and are not afraid to ask questions related to them.

      Even today, there are many people in India who do not even realize the importance of sex education. These people do not understand that even if you do not talk about sex education, growing children will still It is natural to have thoughts related to it. Especially now that children spend more and more time on the internet where sexually related things are easily found.

Why sex education is important for children -

Many people believe that sex education means just talking about sex but this is not true.

Sex education is an action by which we give detailed information about sex to growing children so that they can have a perspective about sexual activity, close relationships, and their sexual identity. It also helps in generating understanding so that they are capable of taking important sexual decisions.

Sex education also makes children aware of physical changes during puberty which helps them to accept puberty. Moreover, through this education, we can explain to children how important it is for a healthy sex life to take safe and healthy decisions in life.

By getting sexual information, children are able to raise their voice against the physical abuse that occurs on them, it is understood that what is the right age of reproduction, how important it is to take protection during mating and before marriage. How harmful it can be to be.
How to talk to your children about sexual activity -

Many parents feel that sex education is a one-time discussion in which they only have to tell their children about the act of sex and about puberty. But it is not so.



The process of sex education becomes easier when we see it as a continuous action and discuss it in a few moments of everyday life.
For example, whenever you see an advertisement for a sanitary napkin while watching TV, on that occasion you can talk to your child about puberty and menstruation.
Sex-Education
Sex-Education

Only speak truthfully to your child-

Talk openly with your child about every topic related to sex and just give true information. If you are hesitant and anxious to talk about sexual activity, then share it with your child and together find a solution. If you do not know the answer to any of the questions asked by them, then instead of creating concocted stories, find the right answer with them. But make them realize how important it is to talk about it.

Try to understand your child-

The time of puberty is very exciting for a child. They go through many physical and mental changes that they find difficult to cope with.

As a parent, it is your duty to understand and comfort your child's feelings during puberty. Avoid telling them that it is considered bad to talk about all these things. In this way, you will only discourage them from talking sexually so that they will be forced to seek answers from elsewhere.

Encourage your children to ask questions-

Today's young children are forced to do many things under pressure from classmates, due to which they have to face many difficulties. At such times, your support becomes very important for them. Assure your child that you are standing with them and encourage them to share their problems with you. In this way, you will be able to guide them correctly.

Understand your child's sexual thoughts -

Sex education is not only about explaining sex. Through this action, it is necessary that we create the right attitude towards sex in our children.

We want to make them aware of the feelings behind the sexual relationship and explain its value.

Discuss the delicate topics carefully-

One of the duties of sex education is to instill in children the right sense of sex so that they grow up and respect everyone, so it is important that parents talk and try carefully about topics like homosexuality and sexual abuse. That you do not say anything bad about anything related to sex so that they misunderstand that it is wrong to talk about these things.



Importance of sex education in schools-

The early arrival of puberty and the availability of many sexually related things on the internet makes it necessary that we start giving sex education to children from an early age.
Many schools prefer to tell about sexual abuse and avoidance, starting in class two and three so that young children know what sexual abuse means and when they should raise their voice against it.
In detail, sex education should be studied between seventh to ninth grade when most of the children reach the puberty stage.

Sex education may still be a less popular subject in India, but its importance can never be ignored.

The right sexual information not only enables young children but also keeps in mind that children should always make the right decisions in their life and guide them in the right direction.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Activity In Yoga - Yoga In My School

Activity In Yoga 

Yoga has eight parts -
(i) Yama ,
(ii) Niyam ,
(iii) Asana,
(iv) Pranayama,
(v) Pratyahara,
(vi) Dharna,
(vii) Dhyana ,
(viii) Samadhi,.
       
           The above eight organs also have their own sub organs. Currently, only three parts of yoga are in vogue - asana, pranayama, and meditation.

yoga-activity
yoga-activity


















Yoga is science:- 'Yoga is not a religion, faith, and superstition. Yoga is simple science. Is experimental science. Yoga is the art of living life. Yoga is a complete medical practice. Yoga is the complete path - in fact, religion binds people to the pegs and yoga shows the path of liberation from all kinds of pegs.

     Ashtanga Yoga:- Patanjali has created eight steps to reach God, to the truth, to himself, to salvation. If you climb only one ladder, you will not have to push for the second, only the emphasis is on the first. Take the initiative Know that yoga is a scientific process to progress towards that ultimate power. If you have left then you will reach.

   Yoga is a larger subject. You must have heard - jnana-yoga, bhakti-yoga, dharma-yoga, and karma-yoga. In all these, the word Yoga is associated. You must have heard hatha-yoga too, but excluding all this which is Raja Yoga, it is the yoga of Patanjali.

   This yoga has the highest circulation and importance. We know this yoga by the name of Ashtanga Yoga. Ashtanga yoga means eight types of parts of yoga. Patanjali has categorized all the disciplines of yoga into eight organs.

    If you want to know God, know the truth, attain attainments or just be healthy, then from today yoga will have to start from the bottom of the body. Change the body, the mind will change. If you change your mind, your intellect will change.

   The first five organs of nature prepare to enter yoga, that is, the practice of swimming is confined to these five limbs before leaping into the sea and crossing Bhavsagar. Without doing them, you cannot cross Bhavsagar and those who do not jump by doing them will remain here. Many people become successful in these five and destroy their lives by telling the miracles of yoga.

    Change yourself: You have to know God, you have to know the truth, you have to achieve achievements or just to be healthy, then you have to start from the bottom of the body. Change the body, the mind will change. If you change your mind, your intellect will change. If the intellect changes, the soul will automatically be healthy. The soul is healthy. Only a healthy self can be attained to samadhi.








    

 






















     Those who have malice in their brain always live in worry, fear, and doubt. He sees life as a struggle, not a pleasure. All kinds of mind movements are restrained by yoga - the inner sense of the mind, the intellect, ego and mind. If you want, you can call it an unconscious mind, but this conscience is considered even more subtle.

     All the religions of the world want to occupy this mind, so they have kept people from their religion by creating various rules, action scandals, planetary constellations and fear of God.


     Yoga does not teach to believe nor to doubt. And between faith and doubt, the sum is very against skepticism. Yoga says that you have the ability to know, use it.

     You can see more than you have eyes, which are not visible in general. You have ears, they can also be heard from what is called Anahata. Anahata means the sound that is not born of any impact, which is known as Om Gyanijan, the same is Amen, the same is Omin and Omkar.

     Finally, firstly you make your senses sacrifice. Make the body fit And make this mind your own slave. And it is very easy to do everything-



Saturday, April 4, 2020

Rural School Education -Basic facilities


Basic facilities- Rural School Education 

       According to the survey, government schools are not inferior to private schools in terms of basic facilities. Both types of schools provide all basic facilities to children, although private schools were said to be far superior to government schools in terms of medical facilities, electricity.



Water- 

In the matter of the facility of drinking water for the children, whether there is a private school or government, there is an equal arrangement for everyone. 95% of both private and government schools have drinking water arrangements.

Rural-school
Rural-school


Toilet-

Private schools are relatively better in terms of separate toilets for boys and girls. 76 percent of private schools have separate toilets for boys and girls, while 95 percent of government schools have this facility.

45 percent of private schools have medical check-up facilities for children, while about 35 percent of government schools have this facility. 95 percent of private schools have electricity, while 85 percent of government schools have electricity.

Who is responsible for the plight of government school-



In 2004, India ranked 106th among 127 countries in the world. Although India ranks among the 10 fastest developing powers in the world, about 40% of the people are still uneducated or under-educated. Even after 75 years of independence, India still faces the challenge of educating the poor.

RTE-

Education is the only means of development in a country like India. In order to make it accessible to the common man, a provision of the RTE Act (Right to Education) has been made in 2009. In this, the education of children between 6 and 14 years has been made compulsory. Its main objective was to achieve 100 percent literacy rate across India.

The "Right to Education Act 2009" came into force throughout the country on 1 April 2010, it is now a right under which state governments have to ensure that all children between 6 and 14 years of their state are provided free and compulsory education. Along with this, other necessary facilities are available and for this, no direct or indirect charges can be charged from them.

Rural-school
Rural-school



Even before the implementation of this law, there were a lot of problems in rural basic education in India and after the introduction of the law, it has added some new problems like lack of sufficient trained teachers, getting teachers to work continuous and comprehensive evaluation system. Complications about, hindrance of children in schools after enrollment and the rate of dropout among children are the biggest challenges is. But its positive effects are also seen, after the implementation of RTE, today we have reached almost 100% enrollment which is a big achievement and now almost every habitation in the villages from the city to far-flung Mazra Tola or its Schools have opened up nearby. Despite the achievements, our public rural education system has been constantly under criticism. During this period, all the reports that have come about rural basic education in India have been negative.

The news of its plight is also published in the media about rural education. In such a situation, the question arises that what is the reason for this? Is there any shortfall in RTE law? Or are we not able to implement it properly? There is also a possibility that this law is being deliberately propagated against it to prove it useless, thereby establishing it as a passive and unnecessary system in which it is impossible to reform. There is definitely no reason.

First of all, we talk of criticisms and propaganda, due to which the trust of people from government schools has steadily decreased and a large number of private schools have opened in small cities, towns and villages, most of these private schools are also located than government schools. They are bad and their main focus is not education but to make maximum profit.

The number of children in government rural schools is steadily declining, while in private schools, the reverse is happening. According to the latest report of the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of the country, the total enrollment in government schools in 2011-12 was 1 crore 11 lakh, which has been reduced to 90 lakh 50 thousand in 2015 16, while on the other hand, the number of students in private schools Has steadily increased.

Rural-school
Rural-school

According to the report released by the Ministry of Human Development in 2013, around 23 lakh students leave the school every year until the 5th. Around 200 million children in the country are getting elementary education. Even after the implementation of the Education Act (RTE), there is no change in the country and the direction of government schools.

The condition of government schools in India is very thoughtful. Except for 10 or 12 states in India, the condition of education is becoming worse in the remaining states. Student numbers in government schools are increasing, but the quality of education is going into the abyss. Only those students come to these schools whose parents work as laborers and they admit their children only because they will get the scholarship.

India's education system is divided into two parts - urban and rural. The education system is comparatively better due to private schools in urban areas, but the condition of government schools in rural areas is very reasonable. Schools of rural tribal areas are extremely neglected. There are many reasons for which some may be.



Thursday, April 2, 2020

Health Or Education- School and Health


Health and Education 

World Health Organization-



      In today's era, health has a very wide meaning. Where it refers to a physical, functional or metabolic state or ability in the context of any animal, in the human context it refers to the person's body, brain, and attitude. In other words, health is the state of abstaining from sickness and sorrow pain.
Health-education
Health-education

       The World Health Organization has defined it broadly in 1946-47, according to which health does not mean any kind of illness or weakness, but health is the full state of physical mental and social welfare.

        This definition has been a subject of controversy in the world, especially in the view that it lacks operational value and due to the problem arising out of the use of the word 'complete', it is difficult to accept it completely. Nevertheless, it is the most sustainable classification system commonly used in terms of defining and measuring health products.

     Our health care and enhancement are based on various combinations of physical, mental and social well-being, sometimes collectively called the 'health triangle'. According to the World Health Organization, health is not just a condition, but a means of daily life. Health is a positive concept, which emphasizes social and personal resources and physical abilities.

       The term 'healthy' is widely used to refer to many non-living organizations and their beneficial effects on humans, in order to protect humans from diseases or to solve their health-related problems and to promote good health.

    For example, our basic requirement is healthy communities, healthy cities or a healthy environment in the sense of measures taken for the purpose of good health and apart from a person's environment, there are many other factors that affect the health status of a person. Huh.
The environment in which the person lives, his importance is definitely in terms of his health status and quality of life. This fact is widely accepted that health care and health improvement is not possible only through the progress and use of health science.



      For this, it is necessary that every person and society should strive at a personal level and adopt intelligent lifestyle choices. According to the World Health Organization, the major health determinants are - social and economic environment, physical environment and individual's personal characteristics and behavior.

    These problems include the availability of health care in society and public health, improving outcomes, especially in developing countries (health awareness) The concept of 'health field', which is different in medical care, Canada's Lalonde Report Is derived from The report identifies three interdependent fields, which are key determinants of a person's health.

        All aspects of physician health, whether physical, health or mental health, are developed within the human body. The Allied County Study on Health has taken into consideration some of the issues related to lifestyle and their relationship with functional health. The data is compiled. These data suggest that people and society can improve their health, which requires exercise, adequate sleep, a balanced diet, limited use of alcohol and abandonment of smoking.

Health-education
Health-education

     The ability to adapt and self-control is very important for human health and society. The environment is an important factor that affects human health. And the person has got it in the gift. It contains the characteristics of the natural environment, built environment and social environment.



      Clean water and air have been got free from this nature. Adequate housing facility and safe community and roads prove beneficial for good health, especially in relation to the health of infants and children. Some studies have shown that where there are no recreational places nearby, including natural eco-park waterfalls, etc., the level of personal satisfaction is very low, and this increases obesity.

       Obesity affects the overall health of a man. This indicates that the importance of natural sites found around urban areas in relation to public policy and land use is undeniable in terms of a positive impact on health.

       The impact of genetics/genetics / or inherited characteristics or diseases on health in a society is definitely visible on the health of the individuals. Its scope includes the possibility of certain diseases and health conditions, as well as those habits and behaviors that develop through family lifestyles.
Human health is a branch of science that focuses on health. There are mainly two approaches to health -

    1 Study and research of the human body and health-related problems, so that it can be understood how humans (and animals) work.
   2. Use of the above knowledge in improving the health of human beings and curing (curing) diseases and based on other physical sub-sectors, including - Biology, Biochemistry, Physics, Epidemiology, Pharmacology, Medical Sociology, and others.

    It is the endeavor of health sciences that human health is better understood and improved and in this regard, special attention should be paid to some important areas like health education, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, and public health.

Role of Public Health and education:- 

         Public health has been interpreted as a subject of science and art that aims to prevent disease, prolong life through organized efforts and improve human health and education. Also, society has to make public and private organizations, communities and individuals aware in this regard.

Public health is also concerned with the threats to the overall health of a community and makes it the basis of population health analysis. It can also reduce the population, such as a handful of people or it can be very large.

        There are many sub-areas of health in society, but it specifically includes categories of interlinked subjects. These categories are -  Epidemiology, Biostatistics, Health Services. There are other important areas of public health, such as Environmental Health, Community Health, Behavioral Health, and Occupational Health.
Health-education
Health-education



           The main objective of public health and education - to make the society aware of the art of education and prevention of diseases and treatment of the injured and to promote other health services. For this, it is necessary to keep an eye on such cases and encourage healthy behavior communities and the environment.

         Its aim is also to ensure that health problems do not recur, educational programs should be implemented, policies should be developed, services should be conducted and research should be conducted.

            In many types of cases, treat any health-related disease so that other people are not affected by it. Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms and other examples of prevention of diseases arising out of untouchability are common ways in which public health protection measures can be taken.

         Many steps have to be taken to reduce health disparities in the country, or between different regions of the world, under the public health centers. The main problem is that in addition to how health care is available to individuals and communities, several types of schemes are also being run by the community health centers. Given that financial, geographical or socio-cultural problems exist. There are many areas involved in the use of the public health systems, such as maternity and child health, healthcare administration, emergency service and prevention and control of infectious and chronic diseases, etc.

          The positive impact is widely accepted in public health centers programs. Due to policies and activities developed through public health, infant and child mortality has decreased in the 20th century and the rate of life has increased continuously in most parts of the world. For example, it is estimated that since 1900, life in America has increased by 30 years, whereas in the world, this growth has been 6 years since 1990.

Personal efforts for good health and education:-

         Along with other things for human health, it is also necessary to keep this in mind and put into practice what steps other people take for good health. And what should be kept By doing this, the effect of the disease will be prevented or reduced. Generally in the case of chronic disease and a coordinated approach will have to be adopted for it. For good health, it is necessary to pay special attention to personal hygiene, such as washing hands with bath soap, keeping teeth clean, making food well, Serve and keep.



           Health can be protected by taking such precautions and exercising regularly. For good health, it is necessary that experiences and yoga should be included in your routines, such as light exercise for sleep, yoga, nutritious food, and a pure environment.

           Due to lack of good sleep at night for best health, doing various experiments like feeling tired in the morning like applying different pillows, along with clinical decision and treatment plan can also be beneficial. Personal health and education also depend to some extent on the social structure of a person's life.

      There are some things directly related to human mental health, such as strong social relationships, voluntary service, and other social work, and in such a case the person also gets longevity. A US study on senior citizens above 75 years of age has shown that those who engage more in voluntary work have relatively less risk of death.

        A study by Singapore in the world has shown that the performance of retired people who have been involved in voluntary activities has been good on their level of knowledge, symptoms of depression are low and mental health is improved as well as life satisfaction. Has been relatively low
If psychological stress persists for a long period of time, it has an adverse effect on health and it affects a person's level of knowledge as they age, and depression causes diseases. Under stress management, there are methods that reduce stress or increase the power to bear stress.

       The amount of stress can also be reduced by techniques of human body relaxation. Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation, yoga, and positive thinking, which significantly reduce stress. Improving critical efficiencies, such as problem-solving and time management are techniques that reduce uncertainty and increase confidence. It also decreases the response in relation to stress-causing situations.
Health-education
Health-education

Sexual dimension of health and education:-



          The term gender is used in society to describe the characteristics, roles, and responsibilities of women and men, boys and girls, which are socially structured. Gender is related to how women and men are perceived and the differences between them can be clarified, and what is expected at the level of thought and action. The reason for this is how society is organized.

        Gender means - socially defined roles and relationships in society, personality characteristics, attitude-behavior, value relative power that society offers to two genders on a different basis. Gender is related. Sexual roles and characteristics are not found in absolute terms, but they are defined relative to each other.

          Also, women and men are defined through mutual relationships between girls and boys. Sex is our biology and everything else is gender. If you know that a 100 percent difference is biological then it is a sexual difference.

          Just as we use glasses to correct our eyesight, similarly we need to focus on gender differences and identify aspects of medical safety and illness and further research on them. Lens help.

       This gender provides such a framework from lens shops, with the help of which any field of medicine can be examined keeping the gender in mind. Gender lens tools can be used to detect deficiencies and gaps found in health information.

      The presence of a disease, the diagnosis of it, the ability to treat the risk factor and the progression of the disease, etc. all affect the gender. Gender Less Tools provide such a framework that shows how the following areas contribute to a person's gender.

The conclusion-

a. Difference between sex and gender

b. Determinants of gender health

c. Effect of gender expectations on humans



d. The role of gender, poverty, and doctors (Physicians)

e. I need to be aware of personal views and likes.

f. Possible system and medical literature keeping gender perspective in mind

g. Equality in medical education, the influence of more women in medicine and whether there are still barriers for women in medicine.
h. Her experience recommending a career related to female health.

i. Economic facts

j. All the above facts are very important for understanding the gender perspective of health because women in cardiac rehab programs have 20 percent less enrollment than men.

k. Men tend to get more acute in the post-depression condition. We have to hire a specialist.
l. In the early phase of major depressive disorder related to depression, educational achievements and earning power decreases more in women than men.

m. Despite being diagnosed with various histological types, currently, men and women have to undergo the same type of investigation to diagnose lung cancer. Lower fertility in relation to smoking in cases of women. Cervix cancer is caused by osteoporosis and menstruation and menopause.

n. The probability of suicidal tendencies in gay people and Lerichian women is 6 times and twice as high as compared to heterosexual counterparts.

o. Pregnant women who smoke have children who are underweight at birth.

p. At the same type of competition level, female players have higher exposure to the noncontact cruciate ligament (ACL) than male players. It is estimated that up to 10 percent of the population is lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender.

q. Therefore, it should be clearly understood that different social roles of men and women affect their health differently and Health Advocacy advocates that socio-economic and gender effects on a person's health are well Be understood

r. Gender shows health. Expertise, evidence-based care that is really focused on the patient, it is necessary to work on the following points.

s. Understanding the biological and technical aspects of medical care.

t. Understanding the correlation between individual and social context.

           In almost all cultures and social structures throughout the world and in social groups, men have relatively little control over women's resources. Equal opportunities for them to get facilities like education, health-related training are also less available.

        Yet in society, the meaning of man or woman is different in different cultures, castes, and classes. It is important that the concept of man or woman should be clarified and it should be known which men or women groups they are talking about.

          The medical profession that appears to us is wholly influenced by our personal and institutional perspectives and looks at life through these lenses. Gender lenses give color to how medical problems are viewed and how the disease is defined. It is also possible that the literature from which the database draws its evidence and on which the therapy decisions are based, Go to ignore the Ion.

     The gender-based differences found in accessing or controlling resources, power or decision making and in relation to roles and responsibilities have an impact on the health of women and men. In the following ways, gender can affect health status. And can provide the right to equality. :-

I. The threat, Risk, and Sensitivity

II. Nature, intensity or frequency of health problems

III. Methods through which symptoms are identified

IV. Health care measures

V. Availability of health services

VI. Ability to adopt prescribed therapies

VII. Long term social and health outcomes

VIII. Demonstration of professional trends arising from deep understanding and respect for differential variations.


Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Education System In India-भारत में शिक्षा

 Education System In India

 Education System In India-

       प्राचीन काल में, भारत में शिक्षा की गुरुकुल प्रणाली थी जिसमें जो कोई भी अध्ययन करना चाहता था वह शिक्षक (गुरु) के घर जाता था और उसे पढ़ाने का अनुरोध करता था। यदि गुरु द्वारा एक छात्र के रूप में स्वीकार किया जाता है, तो वह गुरु के स्थान पर रहेगा और घर में सभी गतिविधियों में मदद करेगा। इसने न केवल शिक्षक और छात्र के बीच एक मजबूत संबंध बनाया, बल्कि छात्र को घर चलाने के बारे में सब कुछ सिखाया। गुरु ने वह सब कुछ सिखाया जो बच्चा सीखना चाहता था, संस्कृत से पवित्र शास्त्रों तक और गणित से लेकर तत्वमीमांसा तक। छात्र जब तक चाहे तब तक रहे या जब तक गुरु को यह महसूस नहीं हुआ कि उसने जो कुछ भी सिखाया है, वह उसे सिखा सकता है। सभी सीखने को प्रकृति और जीवन से निकटता से जोड़ा गया था, और कुछ जानकारी को याद रखने तक ही सीमित नहीं था।



         आधुनिक स्कूल प्रणाली को अंग्रेजी भाषा सहित भारत में लाया गया था, मूल रूप से 1830 के दशक में लॉर्ड थॉमस बिंगटन मैकाले द्वारा। पाठ्यक्रम को "आधुनिक" विषयों जैसे विज्ञान और गणित तक सीमित कर दिया गया था, और तत्वमीमांसा और दर्शन जैसे विषयों को अनावश्यक माना गया था। शिक्षण कक्षाओं तक सीमित था और प्रकृति के साथ संबंध टूट गया था, शिक्षक और छात्र के बीच घनिष्ठ संबंध होता था।

RURAL-EDUCATION-INDIA
RURAL-EDUCATION-INDIA

शिक्षा भारत में पहली बार-(Education in India)-

       उत्तर प्रदेश (भारत में एक राज्य) बोर्ड ऑफ हाई स्कूल और इंटरमीडिएट शिक्षा भारत में पहली बार 1921 में राजपूताना, मध्य भारत और ग्वालियर पर अधिकार क्षेत्र के साथ स्थापित किया गया था। 1929 में, हाई स्कूल और इंटरमीडिएट शिक्षा, राजपूताना के बोर्ड की स्थापना हुई। बाद में, कुछ राज्यों में बोर्ड स्थापित किए गए। लेकिन अंततः, 1952 में, बोर्ड के संविधान में संशोधन किया गया और इसका नाम बदलकर केंद्रीय माध्यमिक शिक्षा बोर्ड (CBSE) कर दिया गया। दिल्ली और कुछ अन्य क्षेत्रों के सभी स्कूल बोर्ड के अंतर्गत आते हैं। यह बोर्ड का कार्य था कि वह इससे जुड़े सभी स्कूलों के लिए पाठ्यक्रम, पाठ्य पुस्तकों और परीक्षा प्रणाली जैसी चीजों पर निर्णय ले। आज बोर्ड से संबद्ध हजारों स्कूल हैं, भारत के भीतर और  कई अन्य देशों में।



       6-14 आयु वर्ग के सभी बच्चों के लिए सार्वभौमिक और अनिवार्य शिक्षा भारत गणराज्य की नई सरकार का एक सपना था। यह इस तथ्य से स्पष्ट है कि इसे संविधान के अनुच्छेद 45 में एक निर्देश नीति के रूप में शामिल किया गया है। लेकिन यह उद्देश्य आधी सदी के बाद भी बहुत दूर बना हुआ है। हालाँकि, हाल के दिनों में, सरकार ने इस चूक पर गंभीरता से ध्यान दिया है और प्राथमिक शिक्षा को प्रत्येक भारतीय नागरिक का मौलिक अधिकार बना दिया है। आर्थिक विकास के दबाव और कुशल और प्रशिक्षित जनशक्ति की तीव्र कमी ने निश्चित रूप से सरकार को ऐसा कदम उठाने के लिए एक भूमिका निभाई होगी। भारत सरकार द्वारा हाल के वर्षों में स्कूली शिक्षा पर खर्च सकल घरेलू उत्पाद का लगभग 3% है, जिसे बहुत कम माना जाता है।

RURAL-EDUCATION-INDIA
RURAL-EDUCATION-INDIA

विकास (development)-

      हाल के दिनों में, भारत में शिक्षा के क्षेत्र में खराब स्थिति के विकास के लिए कई बड़ी घोषणाएँ की गईं, जिनमें से सबसे उल्लेखनीय हैं संयुक्त प्रगतिशील गठबंधन (संप्रग) सरकार का राष्ट्रीय साझा न्यूनतम कार्यक्रम (NCMP)। घोषणाएँ हैं-
(A) जीडीपी के लगभग 6 प्रतिशत तक शिक्षा पर खर्च में उत्तरोत्तर वृद्धि करना ।
(B) शिक्षा पर व्यय में इस वृद्धि का समर्थन करने के लिए, और शिक्षा की गुणवत्ता बढ़ाने के लिए, सभी केंद्र सरकार के करों पर एक शिक्षा उपकर लगाया जाएगा।
(C) यह सुनिश्चित करने के लिए कि आर्थिक पिछड़ेपन और गरीबी के कारण किसी को शिक्षा से वंचित नहीं किया जाता है।
(D) 6-14 वर्ष की आयु के सभी बच्चों के लिए शिक्षा के अधिकार को मौलिक अधिकार बनाना।
(E) अपने प्रमुख कार्यक्रमों जैसे कि सर्वशिक्षा अभियान और मिड डे मील के माध्यम से शिक्षा को सार्वभौमिक बनाना।
स्कूल प्रणाली-(School system)-
       भारत 28 राज्यों और 7  "केंद्र शासित प्रदेशों" में विभाजित है। राज्यों की अपनी चुनी हुई सरकारें हैं, जबकि केंद्र शासित प्रदेशों पर भारत सरकार द्वारा सीधे शासन किया जाता है, भारत के राष्ट्रपति प्रत्येक केंद्र शासित प्रदेश के लिए प्रशासक नियुक्त करते हैं। भारत के संविधान के अनुसार, स्कूली शिक्षा मूल रूप से एक राज्य का विषय था- इसलिए, राज्यों को नीतियां तय करने और उन्हें लागू करने का पूरा अधिकार था। भारत सरकार (भारत सरकार) की भूमिका उच्च शिक्षा के मानकों पर समन्वय और निर्णय लेने तक सीमित थी। इसे 1976 में एक संवैधानिक संशोधन के साथ बदल दिया गया था ताकि शिक्षा अब तथाकथित समवर्ती सूची में आए। अर्थात्, स्कूली शिक्षा नीतियों और कार्यक्रमों का राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर भारत सरकार द्वारा सुझाव दिया जाता है, हालांकि राज्य सरकारों को कार्यक्रमों को लागू करने में बहुत अधिक स्वतंत्रता है। नीतियों की घोषणा राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर समय-समय पर की जाती है।

       (CABE), 1935 में स्थापित, शैक्षिक नीतियों और कार्यक्रमों के विकास और निगरानी में एक प्रमुख भूमिका निभाता है।
     एक राष्ट्रीय संगठन है जो विकासशील नीतियों और कार्यक्रमों में महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाता है, जिसे राष्ट्रीय शैक्षिक अनुसंधान और प्रशिक्षण परिषद (NCERT) कहा जाता है जो राष्ट्रीय पाठ्यचर्या की रूपरेखा तैयार करता है। प्रत्येक राज्य का अपना समकक्ष राज्य शैक्षिक अनुसंधान और प्रशिक्षण परिषद (SCERT) कहलाता है। ये वे निकाय हैं जो अनिवार्य रूप से शैक्षिक रणनीतियों, पाठ्यक्रम, शैक्षणिक योजनाओं और शिक्षा के राज्यों के विभागों के मूल्यांकन के तरीकों का प्रस्ताव करते हैं। SCERT आमतौर पर NCERT द्वारा स्थापित दिशानिर्देशों का पालन करते हैं। लेकिन राज्यों को शिक्षा प्रणाली को लागू करने में काफी स्वतंत्रता है।
शिक्षा पर राष्ट्रीय नीति, 1986 और कार्रवाई का कार्यक्रम (पीओए) 1992 ने 21 वीं सदी से पहले 14 साल से कम उम्र के सभी बच्चों के लिए संतोषजनक गुणवत्ता की मुफ्त और अनिवार्य शिक्षा की परिकल्पना की थी। सरकार ने सकल घरेलू उत्पाद (जीडीपी) का 6% शिक्षा के लिए प्रतिबद्ध किया, जिसका आधा हिस्सा प्राथमिक शिक्षा पर खर्च किया जाएगा। जीडीपी के प्रतिशत के रूप में शिक्षा पर खर्च भी 1951-52 में 0.7 प्रतिशत से बढ़कर 1997-98 में लगभग 3.6 प्रतिशत हो गया।

RURAL-EDUCATION-INDIA
RURAL-EDUCATION-INDIA

Four levels of the school system-
   
         भारत में स्कूल प्रणाली के चार स्तर हैं: निम्न प्राथमिक (आयु 6 से 10), उच्च प्राथमिक (11 और 12), उच्च (13 से 15) और उच्चतर माध्यमिक (17 और 18)। निम्न प्राथमिक विद्यालय को पाँच "मानकों" में विभाजित किया जाता है, उच्च प्राथमिक विद्यालय को दो में, हाई स्कूल को तीन में और उच्चतर माध्यमिक को दो में विभाजित किया जाता है। छात्रों को उच्च विद्यालय के अंत तक बड़े पैमाने पर (मातृभाषा में क्षेत्रीय परिवर्तनों को छोड़कर) एक सामान्य पाठ्यक्रम सीखना होता है। उच्चतर माध्यमिक स्तर पर कुछ मात्रा में विशेषज्ञता संभव है। देश भर के छात्रों को तीन भाषाओं (जैसे, अंग्रेजी, हिंदी और उनकी मातृभाषा) को उन क्षेत्रों को छोड़कर सीखना है, जहाँ हिंदी मातृभाषा है और कुछ धाराओं में जैसा कि बताया गया  है।

CABE-
        भारत में स्कूली शिक्षा में मुख्य रूप से तीन धाराएँ हैं। इनमें से दो राष्ट्रीय स्तर पर समन्वित हैं, जिनमें से एक केंद्रीय माध्यमिक शिक्षा बोर्ड (CBSE) के अधीन है और मूल रूप से केंद्र सरकार के कर्मचारियों के बच्चों के लिए था जो समय-समय पर स्थानांतरित होते हैं और देश में किसी भी स्थान पर स्थानांतरित हो सकते हैं। देश के सभी मुख्य शहरी क्षेत्रों में इस उद्देश्य के लिए कई केंद्रीय विद्यालय (केंद्रीय विद्यालय नाम) स्थापित किए गए हैं, और वे एक सामान्य कार्यक्रम का पालन करते हैं ताकि एक विशेष दिन में एक स्कूल से दूसरे स्कूल जाने वाला छात्र शायद ही देख सके जो सिखाया जा रहा है, उसमें कोई अंतर नहीं। एक विषय (सामाजिक अध्ययन, जिसमें इतिहास, भूगोल और नागरिक शास्त्र शामिल हैं) को हमेशा हिंदी और अंग्रेजी में अन्य विषयों में इन स्कूलों में पढ़ाया जाता है। केंद्रीय विद्यालय अन्य बच्चों को भी स्वीकार करते हैं यदि सीटें उपलब्ध हैं। वे सभी NCERT द्वारा लिखित और प्रकाशित पाठ्य पुस्तकों का अनुसरण करते हैं। इन सरकारी स्कूलों के अलावा, देश के कई निजी स्कूल सीबीएसई पाठ्यक्रम का पालन करते हैं, हालांकि वे विभिन्न पाठ पुस्तकों का उपयोग कर सकते हैं और विभिन्न शिक्षण कार्यक्रम का पालन कर सकते हैं। उन्हें निम्न वर्गों में जो कुछ भी पढ़ाया जाता है, उसमें एक निश्चित मात्रा में स्वतंत्रता है। सीबीएसई के 21 अन्य देशों में 141 संबद्ध स्कूल हैं, जो मुख्य रूप से भारतीय आबादी की जरूरतों को पूरा करते हैं।


ICSE-
        दूसरी केंद्रीय योजना भारतीय माध्यमिक शिक्षा प्रमाणपत्र (ICSE) है। ऐसा लगता है कि यह कैंब्रिज स्कूल सर्टिफिकेट के प्रतिस्थापन के रूप में शुरू किया गया था। इस विचार को 1952 में तत्कालीन शिक्षा मंत्री मौलाना अबुल कलाम आज़ाद की अध्यक्षता में आयोजित एक सम्मेलन में लूटा गया था। सम्मेलन का मुख्य उद्देश्य अखिल भारतीय परीक्षा द्वारा विदेशी कैम्ब्रिज स्कूल प्रमाणपत्र परीक्षा के प्रतिस्थापन पर विचार करना था। अक्टूबर 1956 में इंटर-स्टेट बोर्ड फॉर एंग्लो-इंडियन एजुकेशन की बैठक में, कैम्ब्रिज विश्वविद्यालय के प्रशासन के लिए एक भारतीय परिषद की स्थापना के लिए एक प्रस्ताव अपनाया गया, भारत में स्थानीय परीक्षाओं की सिंडिकेट परीक्षा और सिंडीकेट को सलाह देने के लिए देश की जरूरतों के लिए अपनी परीक्षा को अनुकूलित करने का सबसे अच्छा तरीका है। परिषद की उद्घाटन बैठक 3 नवंबर, 1958 को आयोजित की गई थी। दिसंबर 1967 में, परिषद को सोसायटी पंजीकरण अधिनियम, 1860 के तहत एक सोसायटी के रूप में पंजीकृत किया गया था। परिषद को दिल्ली स्कूल शिक्षा अधिनियम 1973 में सूचीबद्ध किया गया था, एक सार्वजनिक संस्था के रूप में। परीक्षाओं। अब देश भर में बड़ी संख्या में स्कूल इस परिषद से संबद्ध हैं। ये सभी निजी स्कूल हैं और आम तौर पर अमीर परिवारों के बच्चों को पूरा करते हैं।

 CBSE-
         CBSE और ICSE परिषद दोनों देश भर के स्कूलों में अपनी-अपनी परीक्षाएं आयोजित करते हैं जो 10 साल की स्कूली शिक्षा (हाई स्कूल के बाद) और फिर 12 साल (उच्चतर माध्यमिक के बाद) के अंत में उनसे जुड़ी होती हैं। 11 वीं कक्षा में प्रवेश आम तौर पर इस अखिल भारतीय परीक्षा में प्रदर्शन पर आधारित होता है। चूंकि यह बच्चे पर अच्छा प्रदर्शन करने के लिए बहुत अधिक दबाव डालता है, इसलिए 10 साल के अंत में परीक्षा को हटाने के सुझाव दिए गए हैं।
RURAL-EDUCATION-INDIA
RURAL-EDUCATION-INDIA


एक्सक्लूसिव स्कूल-(Exclusive School)-

          उपरोक्त के अलावा, अपेक्षाकृत कम संख्या में ऐसे स्कूल हैं जो तथाकथित वरिष्ठ कैम्ब्रिज जैसे विदेशी पाठ्यक्रम का पालन करते हैं, हालांकि यह काफी हद तक आईसीएसई स्ट्रीम द्वारा कहीं और अभिभूत था। इनमें से कुछ स्कूल छात्रों को आईसीएसई परीक्षाओं में बैठने का अवसर भी प्रदान करते हैं। ये आम तौर पर बहुत महंगे आवासीय विद्यालय हैं जहाँ विदेशों में काम करने वाले कुछ भारतीय अपने बच्चों को भेजते हैं। उनके पास सामान्य रूप से शानदार बुनियादी ढांचा, कम छात्र-शिक्षक अनुपात और बहुत कम छात्र हैं। उनमें से कई विदेश से शिक्षक हैं। देहरादून में दून स्कूल जैसे अन्य विशेष स्कूल भी हैं जो कम संख्या में छात्रों को ले जाते हैं और अतिरिक्त शुल्क लेते हैं।

       इन सबके अलावा, देश भर में मुट्ठी भर स्कूल हैं, जो शिक्षा प्रणाली से दूर होने की कोशिश करते हैं जो रॉट लर्निंग को बढ़ावा देता है और मॉन्टेसरी पद्धति जैसे अभिनव प्रणालियों को लागू करता है। ऐसे अधिकांश स्कूल महंगे हैं, उच्च शिक्षक-छात्र अनुपात रखते हैं और सीखने का माहौल प्रदान करते हैं, जिसमें प्रत्येक बच्चा अपनी गति से सीख सकता है। यह दिलचस्प और शिक्षाप्रद होगा कि उनके पूर्व छात्रों के जीवन पर स्कूल का किस तरह का प्रभाव पड़ा है।

राष्ट्रिय पाठशाला-(National school)-

        देश के प्रत्येक राज्य का अपना शिक्षा विभाग है जो अपनी पाठ्यपुस्तकों और मूल्यांकन प्रणाली के साथ अपनी स्वयं की स्कूल प्रणाली चलाता है। जैसा कि पहले उल्लेख किया गया है, NCERT द्वारा निर्धारित राष्ट्रीय दिशानिर्देशों का पालन करते हुए, पाठ्यक्रम, शिक्षा और मूल्यांकन पद्धति राज्य में SCERT द्वारा बड़े पैमाने पर तय की जाती है।

         प्रत्येक राज्य में तीन प्रकार के स्कूल हैं जो राज्य पाठ्यक्रम का पालन करते हैं। सरकार के स्वामित्व वाली भूमि और भवनों में सरकार अपने स्वयं के संसाधनों से कर्मचारियों का भुगतान करती है। इन्हें आमतौर पर सरकारी स्कूलों के रूप में जाना जाता है। ऐसे स्कूलों में फीस काफी कम है। फिर निजी स्वामित्व वाले स्कूल हैं जिनकी अपनी भूमि और भवन हैं। यहां फीस अधिक है और शिक्षकों को प्रबंधन द्वारा भुगतान किया जाता है। ऐसे स्कूल ज्यादातर शहरी मध्यम वर्गीय परिवारों को पूरा करते हैं। तीसरे प्रकार में ऐसे स्कूल शामिल हैं जिन्हें सरकार द्वारा अनुदान-सहायता प्रदान की जाती है, हालांकि स्कूल को एक निजी एजेंसी द्वारा अपनी भूमि और भवनों में शुरू किया गया था। अनुदान सहायता का मतलब फीस कम करने और गरीब परिवारों को अपने बच्चों को भेजने के लिए संभव बनाना है। केरल जैसे कुछ राज्यों में, ये स्कूल सरकारी स्कूलों से बहुत मिलते-जुलते हैं क्योंकि शिक्षकों को सरकार द्वारा भुगतान किया जाता है और सरकारी स्कूलों में फीस भी समान है।


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