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Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Status of education in rural India

Status of education in rural India



       Rural Education India. The history of Indian education is also the history of Indian civilization. We also find the place and role of education in the development of Indian society and the changes in it, continuously developing. After the public system of education between the Sutrakala and Lokayat, we see Buddhist education being constantly filled with material and social commitment. In the Buddhist period, women and Shudras were also included in the mainstream of education.

       The education system that was built in ancient India was better and better than the education system of the contemporary world, but in the course of time, the Indian education system declined. Foreigners did not develop the education system here in the proportion it should have. During its transition, Indian education faced many challenges and problems. Even today, these challenges and problems are in front of us which we have to deal with.


Rural-Education-In-India
Rural-Education-In-India

     By 1750, the practice of Gurukul continued in India, but due to the transition of English education by Makole, the ancient education system of India came to an end and many Gurukuls were broken in India and convents and public schools were opened in their place.



1 ancient time education
2 medieval times education
3 modern period education
4 British education policy for India
education after independence 
6 Major events in the history of Indian education


Ancient Indian education-
       Acharya's place in Indian education was very proud. He was respected and respected. Acharya was a learned scholar, virtuous, actionable, selfless, self-respecting and always committed to the welfare of the students. The teachers used to make the character of the students, arrange food for them, treat the sick students, they used to start well. Acharya considered Brahmachari only as a part of his family and treated him in the same way. Acharya used to give free education with religious wisdom.
Rural-Education-In-India
Rural-Education-In-India

The students respected and obeyed the Guru. Acharya was touched and presented for the routine in the morning. Under the seat of the Guru, it was considered to be the duties of the students, to be dressed in a comfortable manner, to clean clothes and food on time, to collect fuel, to feed animals, etc. Students used to get up at the Brahmamuhurta and after bathing in the morning, used to take bath, evenings, home, etc. Then used to study.



Education was given the utmost importance in ancient times. India was called 'Vishwaguru'. Various scholars have taught education with metaphors like a light source, insight, inner light, knowledge and third eye. It was the belief of that era that just as light is the means to remove darkness, education is the means to remove all the doubts and illusions of a person. In ancient times, it was emphasized that education gives a real vision of life to a person. And makes it fit

We see the early form of education of ancient India in the Rigveda. The aim of education in the Rigveda era was metaphysics. Those who interviewed the element with celibacy, penance and yoga practice were famous by the names of sages, vipers,  poets, sages,  The interviewed elements were collected in the form of mantras in the Vedic codes, which included the study of Swadhyaya, Sangopang, Shravan, Manana and Nididhyasana.
Rural-Education-In-India
Rural-Education-In-India

Medieval period-
      Acharya's place in Indian education was very proud. He was respected and respected. Acharya was a learned scholar, virtuous, actionable, selfless, self-respecting and always committed to the welfare of the students. The teachers used to make the character of the students, arrange food for them, treat the sick students, they used to start well. Acharya considered Brahmachari only as a part of his family and treated him in the same way. Acharya used to give free education with religious wisdom.



    The students respected and obeyed the Guru. Acharya was touched and presented for the routine in the morning. Under the seat of the Guru, it was considered to be the duties of the students, to be dressed in a comfortable manner, to clean clothes and food on time, to collect fuel, to feed animals, etc. Students used to get up at the Brahmamuhurta and after bathing in the morning, used to take bath, evenings, home, etc. Then used to study.

      Education was arranged for the princes within the palaces. The knowledge of the state system, military organization, war operations, literature, history, grammar, law, etc. was obtained from the home educators. Princesses also got an education. The teachers were highly respected. He was a scholar and a virtuous person. The students and teachers had a mutual love and respect. Emphasis was placed on simplicity, virtue, education, and religion. There was a tradition of memorizing. Lessons were taught by question, interpretation, and examples. There was no examination.

modern period-
     Seeing the improvement of the economic condition of Western-educated Indians, the public started leaning here. A large number of students started entering English schools as the policy of appointing English-educated Indians to government posts was announced. Along with governmental encouragement, English education also received a substantial amount of individual support. With the expansion of the English Empire, more staff and physicians, engineers and lawmakers were required.

      The government's vision was towards useful education. Medical, engineering and law colleges started to be established. Jyotiba Phule opened a school in 1848 to improve the condition of women and their education. It was the first school in the country for this work. If the teacher could not be found to teach the girls, he did this work for a few days and made his wife Savitri eligible.


      The upper-class people tried to disrupt their work from the beginning, but as Phule continued to move forward, he forced his father to expel the husband and wife from the house. This did stop his work for some time, but soon He opened three schools for girls one after the other. Focus on women's education.
Rural-Education-In-India
Rural-Education-In-India

Major events in the history of Indian education-




  1. 1780: 'Kolkata Madrasa' established by East India Company.
  2. 1791: Establishment of 'Sanskrit College' in Banaras by East India Company
  3. 1813: It was decided to spend money on education through a decree.
  4. 1835: Macaulay's manifesto
  5. 1848: Mahatma Jotiba Phule opened India's first primary school for girls in Pune in 1848,     after teaching his wife Savitribai Phule. 
  6. 1854: Manifesto of Wood
  7. 1857: Universities are established in Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras.
  8. 1870: Establishment of Ferguson College in Poona by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and his associates.
  9. 1882: Hunter Commission
  10. 1886: Establishment of Dayanand Anglo Vedic College in Lahore by Arya Samaj.
  11. 1893: Establishment of Kashi Nagri Pracharini Sabha.
  12. 1893: Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaekwad of Baroda first introduced the state to compulsory education.
  13. 1849-1922: Chhatrapati Sahu Ji Maharaj established schools and hostels for the underprivileged and poor children and provided them financial assistance for higher education.
  14. 1898: 'Central Hindu College' established by Mrs. Annie Besant in Kashi.
  15. 1901: Lord Curzon held a secret education conference in Shimla in which 152 proposals were accepted.
  16. 1902: Appointment of University Commission of India (by Lord Curzon)
  17. Establishment of Gurukul Kangri University in Kangri near Haridwar by Swami Shraddhanand.
  18. 1904: Indian University Law made.
  19. 1905: At the time of the Swadeshi Movement, the Council of Ethnic Education was established in Calcutta and a National College was established, with the first principal being Arvind Ghosh. Bengal Technical Institute was also established.
  20. 1906: Maharaja Sayaji Rao Gaikwad of Baroda was the first ruler of India to start free and compulsory primary education in his state in 1904. 
  21. 1911: Gopal Krishna Gokhale tried to make primary education free and compulsory.
  22. 1916: Establishment of Kashi Hindu University by Madan Mohan Malaviya
  23. 1937–38: Basic education scheme based on Gandhian ideas implemented.
  24. 1945: Sergeant scheme implemented.
  25. 1948-49: University Education Commission formed
  26. 1951: Establishment of first IIT in Kharagpur
  27. 1952–53: Secondary Education Commission formed
  28. 1956: Establishment of University Grants Commission
  29. 1958: Second Indian Institute of Technology established in Mumbai
  30. 1959: Third and fourth IITs set up in Kanpur and Chennai respectively :::
  31. 1961: Establishment of NCERT
  32. 1964-66: Establishment of Kothari Education Commission, report submitted.
  33. 1968: First National Education Policy was adopted in accordance with the recommendations of the Kothari Education Commission.
  34. 1975: Integrated Child Development Services Scheme for the proper development of children up to six years old.
  35. 1976: Constitution amendment to change education from 'state' subject to "concurrent" subject.
  36. 1984: Fourth IIM established in Lucknow.
  37. 1985: Establishment of Indira Gandhi National Open University by Act of Parliament.
  38. 1986: New National Education Policy adopted.
  39. 1987–88: All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) established by Act of Parliament as a statutory body

  40. 1992: Amendment in National Education Policy, 1986, based on review by Acharya Ramamurthy Committee.
  41. 1995: Centrally aided mid-day meal scheme started in primary schools.
  42. 1996: Fifth IIM established in Kozhikode
  43. 1998: Sixth IIM established in Indore
  44. 2001: Census literacy rate 65.4% (overall), 53.7% (female)
  45. 2002: Constitution amendment to make free and compulsory education a fundamental right.
  46. 2003: 17 Regional Engineering Colleges converted into National Institutes of Technology.
  47. 2004: A satellite dedicated to education "EduSat" was launched.
  48. 2005: National Minorities Educational Institutions Commission set up by Act of Parliament
  49. 2006: Two Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research are established in Kolkata and Pune.
  50. 2007: Seventh IIM was established in Shillong
  51. 2009: The Right to Free and Compulsory Child Education Act (RTE) passed by the Indian Parliament.
  52. 20 March 2018: Declaration of autonomy to 42 universities and 4 colleges (including five central universities including JNU, BHU, and HCU)

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